Source: (2005) Intercourse, PA: Good Books.

Circles draw on Native American traditions and ancient teachings, but different types of circles have come into use today for a variety of purposes. Typical elements of a circle include opening and closing ceremonies, a talking piece, a facilitator or keeper, collectively established guidelines and consensus decisions. Modern ideas of democracy and inclusive speech relate to the value of equality and the opportunity for participants both to give and to receive from others. The philosophy of circles also emphasises connectedness. The four relational elements of a circle are based on the Medicine Wheel. As well as providing an overview of values, historical context, and components of circles, Pranis’ book discusses ways that circles may be organised. Several examples of various types also reflect the importance of story telling in circle process.