Source: (1999) In,Report on the Ninth Joint Colloquium (Courmayeur Mont Blanc, Taly, 24-26 September 1999), organized under the auspices of the United Nations. Centro Nazionale di Prevenzione e Difesa Sociale. Pp. 17-53.Since the end of World War II, non-international conflicts, purely internal conflicts, and tyrannical regimes have led to massive numbers of victimization and violations of human rights, resulting in material losses, suffering, torture, and death. Settlements to end such conflicts and injustices often permit perpetrators of crimes against humanity to escape being held accountable for their actions. This, according to Bassiouni, is because peace is sought at the expense of justice. Bassiouni argues in response that the internationalization of criminal justice and increased inter-State cooperation should strengthen restorative justice, particularly measures aimed at providing redress for victims and other healing mechanisms. This paper addresses legal issues that should help overcome political and other barriers to accountability by removing impunity as an alternative for dealing with human rights violations.