Source: (2001) In Victim policies and criminal justice on the road to restorative justice: Essays in honour of Tony Peters, ed. E. Fattah and S. Parmentier, 59-82. With an introduction by E. Fattah and S. Parmentier. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

As Jose Luis de la Cuesta writes, significant changes occurred in the 1990s concerning the treatment of young and juvenile offenders in the Spanish criminal justice system. New legislation initiated gradual development toward a combined system with tutelary, penal, and social elements. Changes include the expansion of the legal position of victims, and the possibilities for reparation and victim support services. Primarily from a legal perspective, de la Cuesta surveys new juvenile criminal laws in Spain, the victim’s position in the new juvenile penal system, civil responsibility or liability "ex delicto", and government-instituted support services for victims of crime, including juvenile crime