Source: (1992) In International trends in crime: East meets West. Proceedings of a conference held in Bali 10-13 December 1990, edited by Heather Strang and Julia Vernon, 53-59. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

In looking at the prospects for alternative sanctions in Indonesia, Muladi notes the growing attention in criminology to community-based alternatives to incarceration. Muladi focuses on alternative sanctions intended to satisfy the same goals as custodial sentences, not alternative sanctions with alternative goals (a more radical approach, as he states). This leads to a review of the history of alternatives to custodial sentences in Indonesia and of the advantages of alternative sanctions. Muladi goes on to discuss the implementation of alternative sanctions based on the current Indonesian penal code and then in relation to a draft proposal for that penal code

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