Source: (2006) In, Ivo Aertsen, Tom Daems and Luc Robert, editors, Institutionalizing Restorative Justice. Cullompton, Devon and Portland: Willan Publishing Press pp.1-23This chapter examines policies and practices of various countries to determine when and why restorative justice initiatives occur and what circumstances allow for their successful implementation and institutionalization. The first part of the chapter discusses explanations of penal policy trends, including why most trend explanations are wrong and an overview of correct trend explanations for the following countries: United States, England and Wales, and Canada. This is followed by a section discussing various community penalties and how they are dispersed or used within different jurisdictions. The last part of the chapter concludes why some countries are more likely to use restorative justice initiatives than others, and where future applications of restorative justice may be most successful.