Source: (1998) Paper presented at the First North American Conference on Conferencing. Minneapolis, 6-8 August 1998.

Samuels examines these perspectives on forgiveness. Forgiveness may be the most difficult of virtues. To hurt another is to violate them. To be hurt is to feel violated. But forgiveness is also "our deepest need and highest achievement" said Horace Bushnell. Our daily news is filled with stories of real or perceived violations committed against an individual, community or nation. Forgiveness is an alternative response that can break the chain of violence on both the personal and societal level. But can we move from anger, even hatred, to forgiveness? Part of the answer may lie in how we perceive the human condition.