Source: (1999) Paper presented at the Restoration for Victims of Crime Conference. Australian Institute of Criminology and Victims Referral and Assistance Service. MelbourneHosoi and Nishimura explore the impact of the culture of apology on the criminal justice system. Although the system has been called restorative, the authors make several arguments against this assertion. First, the system is designed to take care of the offender with the state often receiving the apology instead of the victim. Secondly, the victim is left out of the system. Their feelings and needs are often ignored.