Source: (2000) Paper presented at the Eighteenth General IPRA (International Peace Research Association) conference, held at Tampere, Finland, 5-9 August.Terrible conflicts often occur between peoples about how they should live together in the same country or in neighboring counties. Relationships between such peoples can change and new accommodations can be jointly shaped, but these transformed relationships are never static. Sometimes they evolve into more equitable and integrated accommodations; sometimes they regress into further conflict. In this paper, Louis Kriesberg examines the possible contributions that various degrees and kinds of reconciliation can make to advance more equitable and integrative inter-communal accommodations. To demonstrate his points, Kriesberg analyzes changes in inter-communal relations from 1948 to 1999 in South Africa and in Israel/Palestine.