Source: (1996) In: B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.), Restorative Justice: International Perspectives. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp. 283-302.

A study of former offenders found that shame was a significant feature in decisions to go straight. It was the most commonly mentioned reason for going straight and the most commonly mentioned cost of offending. Three kinds of shame were evident: public humiliation, personal disgrace, and private remorse. Private remorse was the most influential and was triggered by an individual offending their personal morality, coming to think that their offending was wrong. Restorative programmes need to encourage offenders to evaluate a cost-benefit analysis of continuing to offend. Reintegrative shaming can be part of this process and is likely to be most effective when it results both in personal disgrace and private remorse.