Source: (1998) In Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research & theological forgiveness, ed. Everett L. Worthington, Jr., 79-104. With a preface and an introduction by Everett L. Worthington, Jr. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.

The authors consider the nature and effects of transgression in relation to forgiveness. They point out that victims and perpetrators have different perspectives of the same events and that those differences complicate the issue of forgiveness. With all of this in mind, the authors identify two dimensions of forgiveness: (1) the intrapsychic dimension; and (2) the interpersonal or relational dimension. These two dimensions can combine to produce various results: hollow forgiveness; silent forgiveness; total forgiveness; and no forgiveness. This leads to examination of grudge theory, or holding a grudge: claims on rewards and benefits; preventing a recurrence; continued suffering; pride and revenge; principled refusal; and the costs of holding a grudge. The chapter concludes with specific observations on grudge theory in relation to the two dimensions of forgiveness.