Source: (2007) In John Hamel and Tonia L. Nicholls, Ed., Family Interventions in Domestic Violence. New York, USA: Springer Publishing Company. Pp. 27-57.

"In conclusion, I present evidence here to argue that a premature foreclosure has occurred in treatment of intimate partner abuse. Because feminist activists have determined the intervention of choice in many states, Duluth models proliferate despite a poor outcome record. Other therapeutic strategies that may be more appropriate with certain couples have been banned or ruled out. I have included the case of treating female prepetrators and for couples work. I have also presented the case for an expanded focus of mail perpetrator treatment to include associated features of abusiveness. I would argue that, although the evidence is still scant, these foci will be relevant in the treatment of femal perpetrators as well." (excerpt)