Source: (1996) In: B. Galaway and J. Hudson (eds.), Restorative Justice: International Perspectives. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, pp. 37-68.

Two limited and incomplete paradigms define the parameters of the debate over the future of the juvenile justice system in the U.S. Neither the traditional individual treatment model nor the retributive justice model provide an adequate framework for preserving a distinct justice system for juveniles. A restorative paradigm offers an alternative value base, new goals and objectives, and new priorities for policy and practice. Both treatment and retributive intervention is one-dimensional and offender-driven. The restorative paradigm provides a three dimensional focus on meeting the needs of victims, offenders, and communities and involving each in the justice process.