Source: (-0001) Report. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia. Downloaded 12 August 2005.A prosecutor in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, in the Australian Capital Territory, Shane Drumgold received a Churchill Fellowship in 2003 to study restorative justice programs for indigenous offenders in the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. The criminal justice system in Australia faces significant challenges: high rates of recidivism; burgeoning prison population; over-representation of minority groups in the offender and inmate populations; rising costs; and more. Drumgold conducted his study in the context of these challenges. Examining the history of criminal law, restorative justice antecedents in the ancient world and indigenous cultures, and modern restorative practices in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand (especially among indigenous peoples), Drumgold concludes that restorative justice initiatives potentially present a better alternative approach to the rehabilitation of offenders than current approaches in Australia. With this in mind, he outlines practical ways to enhance the effectiveness of restorative justice processes, as well as ways to assess their effectiveness.