Source: (2001) Dublin: Irish Penal Reform Trust.The Irish Penal Reform Trust commissioned an inquiry with two chief aims: (1) identification of the deficits of the Irish penal system; and (2) formulation of how a model penal system might be achieved. With these aims in mind, Barry Vaughan begins with an evaluation of the Irish penal system in terms of several factors, such as the suitability of punishment to the crime, reduction in offending, protection of the public, and serving victims of crime. A review of the recent history of and current statistics on imprisonment in the Republic of Ireland is a followed by a chapter on alternatives to prison. This chapter covers, for example, probation, community sanctions, community programs, and financial penalties. It also includes a discussion of restorative justice theory, practices, and costs. Then comes a chapter on diversionary processes and programs. Two appendices treat historical origins of prison reform and judicial attitudes toward to penality and training needs of justices.