Source: (1996) International Review of Victimology 4(3): 153-182.

Recent empirical findings and theoretical writings are reviewed in order to evaluate 3 distinct models of restorative justice within a typology of victim-based measures proposed or adopted in the U.K.: the civilian, victim-offender reparation, and communitarian approaches. The communitarian model is the most coherent, credible and constructive challenger to the hitherto predominant retributive model. This model avoids many of the criticisms to which earlier alternative models were vulnerable.