Source: (2001) State of Justice 3 (November). A periodic publication of Friends Committee on Restorative Justice

Ernest J. P. Muhly begins this essay posing the question of the meaning of justice, restorative justice, and transformative justice. The answer, of course, depends in part on whether one is a victim, offender, or justice professional. At the same time, remarks Muhly, it is clear that a judicial process focused on punishment is quite different than one focused on dealing with healing of harm and relationships. Restorative justice emphasizes the need to deal with harm and relationships. Transformative justice encompasses the principles and practices of restorative justice. Additionally, it goes beyond to emphasize justice as an ongoing process, and it challenges many of the fundamental paradigms of the current economic, environmental, political, judicial, and social systems.