Source: (2011) Improving Schools. 14(2):156-171.

This article explores the varied ways in which schools can respond to students who present with challenging behaviours and who are at risk of disengagement from learning. It sets out a typology of school responses and reflects on the philosophies which underpin each approach. In an effort to rethink the use of suspensions within schools, which contribute to the marginalization of children, the article highlights a range of alternatives to exclusionary practice. It outlines the key elements of approaches that are successful in reducing school suspension and makes evident the benefits of an approach that is tailored to the whole ecology of the child. (author's abstract)