Source: (1992) In: H. Messmer and H.-U. Otto (eds.), Restorative Justice on Trial: Pitfalls and Potentials of Victim-Offender Mediation: International Research Perspectives. Dordrecht, NETH: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 105-130.In contrast with American failure, criminal justice in postwar Japan reflects a spiral of success. In emphasizing offender correction and restoration to the community, law enforcement authorities in Japan have learned from experience that the encouragement of confession, remorse, victim compensation, and pardon are essential elements of a restorative approach that has proven to be effective in correcting socially deviant behavior. American experience with victim-offender mediation suggests that the Japanese approach is transferable at least within limits and that a restorative approach should have similar effects in other cultural contexts. Further research of victim-offender mediation on recidivism and victim attitudes should therefore be a high priority.