Source: (1998) John Howard Society of Alberta. Dowloaded 20 January 2005.As characterized by the John Howard Society of Alberta, the formalized criminal justice system is based on a retributive approach to criminal justice, with crime construed as an act against the state. In contrast, restorative justice construes crime as a conflict between individuals, and it focuses on providing for the needs of victims and offenders. Victim-offender reconciliation programs (VORPs) fall under the concept of restorative justice. With all of this in view, in this document the Society describes the four main models of VORPs, the four phases in a VORP process, and outcomes from VORPs.