Source: (2003) Paper submitted for the XIth International Symposium on Victimology. 13-18 July 2003, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Downloaded 21 August 2003.

Otmar Hagemann, a sociologist at a university in Germany, in this paper looks at the issue of male prisoners as victims of violence and degrading treatment in prisons. To do this he sketches the Mare Balticum project. He and colleagues from several countries that border the Baltic Sea are researching conditions of life and work in closed prisons for sanctioned offenders. From the data collected the researchers are developing a picture of victimization in prison. Hagemann discusses data on inter-prisoner violence and data on structural violence against prisoners. This leads to more detailed examination of specific categories of violence and their effects on victims/prisoners in prison settings. Finally, Hagemann presents an alternative model of a restorative prison.