Source: (1999) Department of Law. University of Leeds. Downloaded 6 July 2004.This paper reports on research activities and results based on a study of victim-offender mediation and reparation, a study conducted by Adam Crawford from 1996 to 1998. According to Crawford, Europe has experienced a proliferation of mediation and reparation, and appeals to mediation and reparation, across divergent countries, notably England and France. Hence, his research focused on those two countries. Through his study, he explored ways in which apparently similar practices are in fact implemented differently in various social, political, economic, legal, and cultural contexts. Specifically, he traced recent histories of victim-offender mediation in England and France, examined continuities and divergences between mediation in those two countries, analyzed the understandings of mediation held by key criminal justice personnel, and assessed the extent to which the rhetoric of mediation is fulfilled in practice.