Source: (2007) Contemporary Justice Review. 10(3): 323-350.

This paper has five elements. The first is a brief overview of the wars in Africa. The second connects Africa and its wars to social injustices which were historically constructed and fostered by exploitative external and internal factors. The third examines the implication of increasing injustices in Africa (intensified by wars and civil conflicts) and connects colonialism, postcolonialism, neocolonialism, or eternal colonialism to internal/external political and economic manipulation, poverty, degenerating social conditions, and conflicts that result in wars. The fourth deals with the specific standard that has become the modus operandi favored by the West and other parts of the world who behave like the West when dealing with Africa; and the fifth attempts a number of suggestions useful in approaching the possibility of transformative response toward constructing justice and peace in that continent. (author's abstract)