Source: (1998) Address presented at the Beyond Prisons international symposium. Kingston, Ontario, March. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada.According to the author of this presentation, efforts to reduce incarceration through alternatives have been unsuccessful in most European countries. Joutsen identifies five reasons for this: lack of political will; lack of public support; lack of a suitable variety of non-custodial sanctions; lack of resources; lack of support from practitioners ( e.g., judges, prosecutors, and police). Joutsen also recommends actions to overcome these obstacles blocking alternatives to incarceration.