Source: (1999) Madison, Wisconsin: Paper Boat ConsultingAt the outset of this essay, John Franz observes that there are competing approaches to the design of juvenile justice systems. The retributive approach, he claims, is beginning to falter. New approaches are being proposed as alternatives. These include, for example, a cognitive-behavioral or family systems method, comprehensive case management strategies, and the balanced and restorative justice approach. Franz asserts that there must be a meaningful measure to allow comparison and contrast of all of these efforts within a consistent context. Toward this end, Franz discusses the best functions and attributes held in common by effective juvenile justice programs to identify benchmarks for developing and measuring an effective model for juvenile justice.