Source: (2010) Thesis for Master of Arts. University of Denver.

Women tend to suffer a disproportionate amount of sexual and reproductive violence during periods of conflict, though they generally participate at a lower rate than men in transitional justice processes. Because participation is discussed in procedural justice literature as being crucial to securing feelings of justice and dignity within victims of violence, the lack of women’s participation in transitional process indicates that justice outcomes could suffer without equitable participation of women. In light of this issue, this study uses a comparative case study analysis method to investigate women’s involvement in the transitional justice processes in Timor Leste and Sierra Leone to uncover conclusions that can be used to understand women’s participation in other transitional societies and thus encourage equal participation of women to enhance justice outcomes. This study indicates that the two main factors that influence women’s participation are the extent to which women or women’s issues were included in the original transitional justice process mandates and the way in which women are viewed in the transitional society. Furthermore, it can be seen that women are included in transitional processes in mechanism mandates or as decision-makers and/or testimony givers/participants. Women are excluded from transitional processes because they either exclude themselves or are overtly excluded by justice systems. (author's abstract)