Source: (2001) Criminology – Aotearoa/New Zealand September (no. 16): 2-4.Aboriginal people experience rates of incarceration in Canada disproportionately high in relation to the percentage of the total population they constitute. Many feel that the current criminal justice system in Canada is a significant part of the problem rather than part of the solution. In this context Heino looks at two efforts to apply more culturally relevant responses to Aboriginal offending xe2x80x93 circle sentencing and elder panels. His discussion includes key principles, processes, and outcomes of these responses.