Source: (1988) In Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam, ed. John P. Wilson, Zev Harel, and Boaz Kahana, 219-238. New York: Plenum Press.
Following World War II, assistance for surviving victims of the Holocaust did not include significant provision for their psychological needs. Danieli contends that a Ã¢Â€Âœconspiracy of silenceÃ¢Â€? existed between psychotherapists and patients who were survivors. To support this, Danieli examines psychotherapistsÃ¢Â€Â™ reactions to such patients as countertransference phenomena. Countertransference phenomena included defensive behaviors, Ã¢Â€ÂœbystanderÃ¢Â€Â™s guilt,Ã¢Â€? rage, shame and related emotions, dread and horror, grief and mourning, Ã¢Â€Âœprivileged voyeurism,Ã¢Â€? and more. Danieli concludes with implications for training of psychotherapists to help them respond to massive trauma and its long-term effects.
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