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International Policy Formation: The Development of Restorative Justice Policy Within the United Nations.

Smith, Cindy
June 4, 2015

Source: (2005) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 11(1):29-49.

Restorative justice and its related terms moved from the background of Ancillary
sessions to the floor of the United Nations Congress. This article documents and
discusses the transfer of local policy to the international arena using the UN forum and
restorative justice as a case study. First, a historical timeline traces the three influential
forces, (1) the United Nations forum, (2) the Non-governmental Organization activities,
and (3) the individual Member States’ activities, behind the restorative justice movement
onto the UN agenda. An integrated modification of Blumer’s process of collective
problem definition is used as a framework to analyze the policy formation. Finally, the
context of how future researchers may make use of the process is analyzed by
comparing the traditional research development framework to Blumer’s policy
framework. A need for wide spread implementation and outcome evaluations are
needed as the policy is implemented is among the key findings. Author’s abstract.


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