Source: (2000) In Victim-offender mediation in Europe: Making restorative justice work, ed. The European Forum for Victim-Offender Mediation and Restorative Justice, 83-97. With an introduction by Tony Peters. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.
Kemeny notes two different perspectives giving rise to restorative justice perspectives: one is academically and sociologically based; and the other is religiously inspired. In Norway, restorative justice is rooted not in the church but in secular thought and practice stemming from Nils ChristieÃ¢Â€Â™s notion of criminal offenses as Ã¢Â€ÂœconflictsÃ¢Â€? between victims and offenders. From this Kemeny, using a definition from the European Forum for Victim-Offender Mediation and Restorative Justice, refers to restorative justice as a process of reparation of the harm caused by crime Ã¢Â€Â“ a process of conflict resolution. Using Norway as an example, the author asks whether the aims of restorative justice Ã¢Â€Â“ conflict resolution offering healing for both the victim and the offender Ã¢Â€Â“ can be realized or whether they will inevitably be compromised by the established criminal justice system. In Norway in the 1970s and 1980s experiments occurred in alternative conflict resolution Ã¢Â€Â“ mediation and reconciliation Ã¢Â€Â“ especially for lesser offenses and for juveniles. Though the results were decidedly ambiguous, in 1991 the Norwegian Parliament passed legislation establishing a mediation and reconciliation service
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