Source: (2002) In, Lode Walgrave, ed., Restorative Justice and the Law. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing. Pp. 168-190.
Restorative justice theory and initiatives have developed dramatically in recent years around the world, with increasing influence at many levels of criminal justice policy-making: international; governmental; and sub-governmental within a wide range of criminal justice agencies. With this growth, observes Dignan, certain significant Ã¢Â€Âœfault lines,Ã¢Â€? or tensions and divergences, within the restorative justice movement have become starkly apparent. Dignan identifies three Ã¢Â€Âœfault linesÃ¢Â€? that delineate different strands of restorative justice thinking: process versus outcome definitions; Ã¢Â€ÂœcivilianÃ¢Â€? versus Ã¢Â€ÂœcommunitarianÃ¢Â€? perspectives; and Ã¢Â€ÂœseparatistÃ¢Â€? versus Ã¢Â€ÂœintegrationistÃ¢Â€? tendencies. Reflecting on these tensions and divergences, he also draws out some of their policy implications. All of this leads to his discussion of the roles of non-custodial penalties and imprisonment within a systemic model of restorative justice.
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