Source: (2012) Nottingham Law Journal. 21:74-85.
Within many contemporary democracies throughout the world, criminal justice systems
display symptoms of crisis: that of England and Wales is no exception, although the
extent of its particular malaise is wider and deeper than that of many other countries.
All too frequently, and such is certainly the case in England and Wales, these â€˜systemsâ€™
are distinctly un-systematic, rather more resembling collectives of state or regional
functions tasked with the maintenance of public order and security, but without a
common purpose at the core of their activities. The crises may have diï¬€erent points of
origin â€“ historical, cultural, ï¬scal, political, socio-economic â€“ singly or more frequently
in combination, but both the crises and the symptoms display a marked extent of
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